01 Feb, 2023 | Wednesday 9-Rajab-1444

The groups who are permitted to break the fasting due to the reasons mentioned should redeem the day(s) they missed after Ramadan. Allah (SWT) states: "The prescribed number (should be made up) from days later." (Al-Qur'an 2:185) If he breaks the whole month, the whole month should be redeemed. If the month is 30 days, 30 days are due on him. If the month is 29 days, 29 days are due.

Technically, the time period of redemption is the whole year before next Ramadan. If he missed ten days, the redemption is due ten days before the next Ramadan. However, it is preferred to redeem as soon as the obstacle is removed, because it is better to meet the obligation and free yourself from the responsibility without delay known as Ibraudh-Dhimmah.

It should not be delayed until next Ramadan without any good reason. The Prophet's wife `Aishah has been reported as saying, "Sometime when I miss some days of Ramadan, I would not be able to redeem them except in the month of Sha`aban." The narrator of the Hadith, Yahya, added: "She was busy serving the Messenger of Allah (saas)." (Bukhari and Muslim). Delaying until the next Ramadan may lead to piling up fasts which may be difficult for him to make up, or he may die in the meantime. If he died before making it up, there will be no blame on him because Allah gave him allowance to make up missed fasts. But if he is able but neglected it, his next of kin should redeem on his behalf.

The Prophet (saas) said: "Whoever dies before redeeming his missed fast, his next of kin should redeem it for him." (Bukhari/Muslim) Indeed, a group of relatives can redeem it for him, each fasting a certain amount of days until the qada is complete. If there is no next of kin, or there is one who does not wish to fast on his behalf, his guardian (Wali) can redeem it by feeding people instead of fasting.

The proof for this case is two things: analogy (al-Qiyaas) and Sunnah. The fear of the elderly person of fasting, in that it may endanger his life, is similar to the case of pregnant and nursing women. Some said the same text cited as proof for permitting the elderly to break the fasting and feed poor people can be cited here too because the verse is general.

In a Hadith reported by Anas Bin Malik Alka`aby (raa), the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: "Allah permitted the sojourner to break the fasting (and make it up), and his Salat is cut in half. Also, pregnant women and nursing mothers are permitted to break their fast." (Tirmidhi)

If menstruation appears while the woman is fasting, even if it is seconds before sunset, the fast of that day is invalidated and she should make the day up, that is, if the fast is a mandatory fast, like Ramadan; but if it is a voluntary fast, she has the option of making it up or not. Should menstruation appear during the daytime, the rest of the day's fast is invalidated?

If menstruation ceases during the night, even seconds before Fajr, the fast of that day becomes mandatory, because she is among the eligible, and the obstacle (mawaani'e) to eligibility has been removed. She should fast even before she takes ghusl (shower, or purifying bath).

Similarly, with a woman bleeding as a result of childbirth (nifaas), her case is identical to that of a menstruating woman.